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Robert D. Although imagery values for the connecting words were not compared, it seems quite likely that the verbs had much higher imagery values than the conjunctions and prepositions used in those experiments. Ellis M. When words are to be associated, memory for the pair can be affected by concrete connective words. The authors noted that imagery should not be considered a useful strategy if it produces no learning gains per unit time. Recent findings indicate that children learn more from a prose passage when it is accompanied by pictures Bender and Levin, ; Lesgold, Levin, Shimron and Guttman, i; Rohwer and Harris, ; Rohwer and Matz, Bobrow and Gordon H. In selecting the media mix for a complete advertising campaign, integrated use of imagery-eliciting strategies in the various media should be one of the objectives. Joel R. Gordon H. The use of concrete terms, verbal descriptions of pictures, and imagery instructions are other ways to elicit mental imagery in the mind of the potential consumer.
An emotional or arousing event is defined as an event that activates the sympathetic nervous system; while a neutral event activates the sympathetic nervous system to a lesser degree or not at all. For example, adults in the Rasco et al. Gary W.
After reviewing research on each of the strategies, this section concludes with a summary and discussion of research findings. It is not unreasonable to expect that the very presentation of concrete information in an ad may stimulate the sorts of judgmental processes upon which the hierarchy-of-effects model rests.
In contrast, a non-interactive image portraying either the brand or its benefits or perhaps both, but not in a single, integrative picture may result in retention of the pictorially presented stimulus, but not the critical relationship between the brand and its benefits.
A picture may indeed be worth words, but it may not be the same words for all members of the audience.
Keywords: presentiment, predictive coding, anticipatory activity, neural prediction, temporal processing PART 1. Other verbal-visual correspondences were not as direct.
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Paivio also discussed studies that tested the effect of presenting a picture along with its verbal counterpart on word learning. Levy, Trevarthen, and Sperry presented a dramatic demonstration of this difference when they showed split-brain patients a chimerical picture such as a face of which each half is actually from a different face. Samuel A. When the picture is not interactive and the items are depicted or imagined side by side, paired associate learning is not necessarily facilitated Bernbach and Stalonas, ; Bower, ; Neisser and Kerr, Even the covert response of thinking about drawing the picture may help to crystallize an image in the consumer's mind. It would seem likely that this ability is not equally present in all audience members and that some will be "lost" at this step. Viewing pictures as opposed to words seems to require much less involvement or cognitive processing for perception and comprehension. The results of numerous studies on mental imagery instructions are reviewed and discussed by Paivio and will be only briefly summarized here.
Other results suggest that embedding the word pair in the context of a sentence aids memory for the pair Davidson, ; Levin, Davidson, Wolff and Citron, ; Lippman and Shanahan, ; Milgram, The nature or type of information retrieved using these two approaches may differ.
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