A study on human genetic engineering

This approach sometimes works but can take considerable time and resources.

genetic engineering examples

Rittling, Jacqueline R. Schwarzenegger mice differ from these cattle in that they highlight scientists' newfound ability to induce muscle development through genetic engineering, which brings up the evident advantages for athletes.

Bodine, Ph. To me, genetic engineering, broadly defined, means that you are taking pieces of DNA and combining them with other pieces of DNA. Currently, available tests include those for eye color, handedness, addictive behavior, "nutritional" background, and athleticism.

Regulation of skeletal muscle mass in mice by a new TGF-beta superfamily member.

Somatic genetic modification

In the media, this possibility has been sensationalized and is frequently referred to as creation of so-called "designer babies," an expression that has even been included in the Oxford English Dictionary. Although possible, this genetic technology has not yet been implemented; nonetheless, it continues to bring up many heated ethical issues. To control this drive for an unfair competitive edge, in , the International Olympic Committee created the World Anti-Doping Agency WADA , which prohibits the use of performance-enhancing drugs by athletes. Transgenic plants also present controversial issues. Testing for Traits Unrelated to Disease Much of what we currently know about the ramifications of genetic self-knowledge comes from testing for diseases. The problem, Johnston explained, is that when scientists want to place human-made DNA into bacteria, they confront the exact same defense systems that protect bacteria against a virus. These traits can, in theory, vary from lower resistance to diseases to even gender selection. In fact, the CCR5 gene that was disabled in the Chinese babies is not just associated with HIV, it may also play an important role in the inflammatory response and in cognitive function. But does knowing whether one has the genetic background for these nondisease traits negatively affect one's self-concept or health perception? In the National Academy of Sciences released a report calling for a legal ban on human cloning [ 11 ].

This practice is called doping, and it frequently involved such substances as erythropoietin, steroids, and growth hormones Filipp, Journal Reference: Christopher D.

And then taking what you have engineered and propagating that in any number of different organisms that range from bacterial cells to yeast cells, to plants and animals.

Methods in this techniques involve the selective breeding of animals and plants, hybridization reproduction between different strains or speciesand recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid rDNA. For safety, ethical, and social reasons, there is broad agreement among many scientists, ethicists, policymakers, and the public that germline editing is a red line that should not be crossed.

Human genetic engineering ethics

As most people who read textbooks and things know, recombinant DNA technology started with pretty simple things--cloning very small pieces of DNA and growing them in bacteria--and has evolved to an enormous field where whole genomes can be cloned and moved from cell to cell, to cell using variations of techniques that all would come under genetic engineering as a very broad definition. But does conferring one desirable trait create other, more harmful consequences? Rittling, Jacqueline R. At present, these questions and conjectures are purely hypothetical, because the technology needed for trait selection is not yet available. Genetic editing is the process of making changes to the genetic code DNA. But the problem arises when there are no limits. Since scientists have a limited amount of time and resources, they tend to work with bacteria that have already been broken into, Johnston explained. This new genetic engineering tool opens up the possibilities for research on bacteria that haven't been well studied before.

This development has sparked new debate around human germline modification, particularly between parties who desire to push the technology forward and those who fear it could open the door to a new market-based form of eugenics.

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